# Cryptology

## Understanding Cryptology

Cryptology encompasses the scientific study of both cryptography and cryptanalysis.

It involves the application of mathematics, including number theory, as well as the utilization of formulas and algorithms that form the foundation of cryptography and cryptanalysis.

## Harnessing Intractability

When data needs to be securely stored or transmitted, it undergoes a transformation that makes it difficult for unauthorized individuals to comprehend its true meaning.

This transformation relies on mathematical equations that are challenging to solve unless specific criteria are met.

The difficulty level in solving these equations is known as intractability, and they serve as the basis of cryptography.

## Placing Cryptological Terminology in Historical Context

Notably, much of the terminology in cryptology originates from a time when securing written messages was the primary concern.

As a result, the original information, even if it appears as a seemingly incomprehensible sequence of 1s and 0s, is referred to as “plaintext.”

## Unlocking Secrets

The confidential information known only to authorized users is called the “key.” The process of transforming plaintext under the control of the key into ciphertext is known as encryption.

Conversely, decryption is the reverse operation in which a legitimate recipient recovers the concealed information from the ciphertext using the key.